Thursday, April 14, 2016

A Guide to Naming Variables

Names Considered Useful

Software is written for people to understand; variable names should be chosen accordingly. People need to comb through your code and understand its intent in order to extend or fix it. Too often, variable names waste space and hinder comprehension. Even well-intentioned engineers often choose names that are, at best, only superficially useful. This document is meant to help engineers choose good variable names. It artificially focuses on code reviews because they expose most of the issues with bad variable names. There are, of course, other reasons to choose good variable names (such as improving code maintenance). This document is also a work-in-progress, please send me any constructive feedback you might have on how to improve it.

Why Name Variables?

The primary reason to give variables meaningful names is so that a human can understand them. Code written strictly for a computer could just as well have meaningless, auto-generated names1:

int f1(int a1, Collection<Integer> a2)
  int a5 = 0;
  for (int a3 = 0; a3 < a2.size() && a3 < a1; a3++) {
    int a6 = a2.get(a3);
    if (a6 >= 0) {
      System.out.println(a6 + " ");
    } else {
  return a5;

All engineers would recognize the above code is needlessly difficult to understand, as it violates two common guidelines: 1) don't abbreviate, and 2) give meaningful names. Perhaps surprisingly, these guidelines can be counter-productive. Abbreviation isn't always bad, as will be discussed later. And meaningful is vague and subject to interpretation. Some engineers think it means that names should always be verbose (such as MultiDictionaryLanguageProcessorOutput). Others find the prospect of coming up with truly meaningful names daunting, and give up before putting in much effort. Thus, even when trying to follow the above two rules, a coder might write:

int processElements(int numResults, Collection<Integer> collection)
  int result = 0;
  for (int count = 0; count < collection.size() && count < numResults; count++) {
    int num = collection.get(count);
    if (num >= 0) {
      System.out.println(num + " ");
    } else {
  return result;

Reviewers could, with effort, understand the above code more easily than the first example. The variable names are accurate and readable. But they're unhelpful and waste space, because:

most code "processes" things (after all, code runs on a "processor"), so process is seven wasted characters that mean nothing more that "compute". Elements isn't much better. While suggestive that the function is going to operate on the collection, that much was already obvious. There's even a bug in the code that this name doesn't help the reader spot.
most code produces "results" (eventually); so, as with process, Results is seven wasted characters. The full variable name, numResults is suggestive that it might be intended to limit the amount of output, but is vague enough to impose a mental tax on the reader.
wastes space; it's obvious that it's a collection because the previous tokens were Collection<Integer>.
simply recapitulates the type of the object (int)
result, count
are coding cliches; as with numResults they waste space and are so generic they don't help the reader understand the code.

However, keep in mind the true purpose of variable names: the reader is trying to understand the code, which requires both of the following:

  1. What was the coder's intent?
  2. What does the code actually do?

To see how the longer variable names that this example used are actually a mental tax on the reader, here's a re-write of the function showing what meaning a reader would actually glean from those names:

int doSomethingWithCollectionElements(int numberOfResults, 
                                      Collection<Integer> integerCollection)
  int resultToReturn = 0;
  for (int variableThatCountsUp = 0; 
       variableThatCountsUp < integerCollection.size() 
         && variableThatCountsUp < numberOfResults; 
       variableThatCountsUp++) {
    int integerFromCollection = integerCollection.get(count);
    if (integerFromCollection >= 0) {
      System.out.println(integerFromCollection + " ");
    } else {
  return resultToReturn;

The naming changes have almost made the code worse than the auto-generated names, which, at least, were short. This rewrite shows that coder's intent is still mysterious, and there are now more characters for the reader to scan. Code reviewers review a lot of code; poor names make a hard job even harder. How do we make code reviewing less taxing?

On Code Reviews

There are two taxes on code reviewers' mental endurance: distance and boilerplate. Distance, in the case of variables, refers to how far away a reviewer has to scan, visually, in order to remind themselves what a variable does. Reviewers lack the context that coders had in mind when they wrote the code; reviewers must reconstruct that context on the fly. Reviewers need to do this quickly; it isn't worth spending as much time reviewing code as it took to write it2. Good variable names eliminate the problem of distance because they remind the reviewer of their purpose. That way they don't have to scan back to an earlier part of the code.

The other tax is boilerplate. Code is often doing something complicated; it was written by someone else; reviewers are often context-switching from their own code; they review a lot of code, every day, and may have been reviewing code for many years. Given all this, reviewers struggle to maintain focus during code reviews. Thus, every useless character drains the effectiveness of code reviewing. In any one small example, it's not a big deal for code to be unclear. Code reviewers can figure out what almost any code does, given enough time and energy (perhaps with some follow-up questions to the coder). But they can't afford to do that over and over again, year in and year out. It's death by 1,000 cuts.

A Good Example

So, to communicate intent to the code reviewer, with a minimum of characters, the coder could rewrite the code as follows:

int printFirstNPositive(int n, Collection<Integer> c)
  int skipped = 0;
  for (int i = 0; i < c.size() && i < n; i++) {
    int maybePositive = c.get(i);
    if (maybePositive >= 0) {
      System.out.println(maybePositive + " ");
    } else {
  return skipped;

Let's analyze each variable name change to see why they make the code easier to read and understand:

unlike processElements, it's now clear what the coder intended this function to do (and there's a fighting chance of noticing a bug)
obvious given the name of the function, no need for a more complicated name
collection wasn't worth the mental tax it imposed, so at least trim it by 9 characters to save the reader the mental tax of scanning boilerplate characters; since the function is short, and there's only one collection involved, it's easy to remember that c is a collection of integers
unlike results, now self-documents (without a comment) what the return value is supposed to be. Since this is a short function, and the declaration of skipped as an int is plain to see, calling it numSkipped would have just wasted 3 characters
iterating through a for loop using i is a well-established idiom that everyone instantly understands. Give that count was useless anyway, i is preferable since it saves 4 characters
num just meant the same thing int did, whereas maybePositive is hard to misunderstand and may help one spot a bug

It's also easier, now, to see there are two bugs in the code. In the original version of the code, it wasn't clear if that the coder intended to only print positive integers. Now the reader can notice that there's a bug, because zero isn't positive (so n should be greater than 0, not greater-than-or-equals). (There should also be unit tests). Furthermore, because the first argument is now called maxToPrint (as opposed to, say, maxToConsider), it's clear the function won't always print enough elements if there are any non-positive integers in the collection. Rewriting the function correctly is left as an exercise for the reader.

Naming Tenets (Unless You Know Better Ones)

  • As coders our job is to communicate to human readers, not computers.
  • Don't make me think. Names should communicate the coder's intent so the reader doesn't have to try to figure it out.
  • Code reviews are essential but mentally taxing. Boilerplate must be minimized, because it drains reviewers' ability to concentrate on the code.
  • We prefer good names over comments but can't replace all comments.


To live up to these tenets, here are some practical guidelines to use when writing code.

Don't Put the Type in the Name

Putting the type of the variable in the name of the variable imposes a mental tax on the reader (more boilerplate to scan over) and is often a poor substitute for thinking of a better name. Modern editors like Eclipse are also good at surfacing the type of a variable easily, making it redundant to add the type into the name itself. This practice also invites being wrong; I have seen code like this:

Set<Host> hostList = hostSvc.getHosts(zone);

The most common mistakes are to append Str or String to the name, or to include the type of collection in the name. Here are some suggestions:

Bad Name(s) Good Name(s)
hostList, hostSet hosts, validHosts
hostInputStream rawHostData
hostStr, hostString hostText, hostJson, hostKey
valueString firstName, lowercasedSKU
intPort portNumber

More generally:

  • Pluralize the variable name instead of including the name of a collection type
  • If you're tempted to add a scalar type (int, String, Char) into your variable name, you should either:
    • Explain better what the variable is
    • Explain what transformation you did to derive the new variable (lowercased?)

Use Teutonic Names Most of The Time

Most names should be Teutonic, following the spirit of languages like Norwegian, rather than the elliptical vagueness of Romance languages like English. Norwegian has more words like tannlege (literally "tooth doctor") and sykehus (literally "sick house"), and fewer words like dentist and hospital (which don't break down into other English words, and are thus confusing unless you already know their meaning). You should strive to name your variables in the Teutonic spirit: straightforward to understand with minimal prior knowledge.

Another way to think about Teutonic naming is to be as specific as possible without being incorrect. For example, if a function is hard-coded to only check for CPU overload, then name it overloadedCPUFinder, not unhealthyHostFinder. While it may be used to find unhealthy hosts, unhealthyHostFinder makes it sound more generic that it actually is.

Set<Host> overloadedCPUs =;
// BAD
Set<Host> matches =;

List<String> lowercasedNames = people.apply(Transformers.toLowerCase());
// BAD
List<String> newstrs = people.apply(Transformers.toLowerCase());

Set<Host> findUnhealthyHosts(Set<Host> droplets) {  }
// BAD
Set<Host> processHosts(Set<Host> hosts) {  }

The exceptions to the Teutonic naming convention are covered later on in this section: idioms and short variable names.

It's also worth noting that this section isn't suggesting to never use generic names. Code that is doing something truly generic should have a generic name. For example, transform in the below example is valid because it's part of a generic string manipulation library:

class StringTransformer {
  String transform(String input, TransformerChain additionalTransformers);

Move Simple Comments Into Variable Names

As illustrated earlier, variable names cannot (and should not) replace all comments. But if a short comment can fit into the variable name, that's probably where it should go. This is because:

  • It's less visual clutter for the code reviewer to wade through (comments are a mental tax, so should provide true value)
  • If a variable is used a long distance from the comment, the code reviewer doesn't have to break their focus and scroll back to the comment to understand the variable

For example,

// BAD
String name; // First and last name
String fullName;

// BAD
int port; // TCP port number
int tcpPort;

// BAD
// This is derived from the JSON header
String authCode;
String jsonHeaderAuthCode;

Avoid Over-used Cliches

In addition to not being Teutonic, the following variable names have been so horribly abused over the years that they should never be used, ever.

  • val, value
  • result, res, retval
  • tmp, temp
  • count
  • str

The moratorium on these names extends to variations that just add in a type name (not a good idea anyway), such as tempString, or intStr, etc.

Use Idioms Where Meaning is Obvious

Unlike the cliches, there are some idioms that are so widely-understood and unabused that they're safe to use, even if by the letter of they law they're too cryptic. Some examples are (these are Java/C specific examples, but the same principles apply to all languages):

  • use of i, j and k in straightforward for loops
  • use of n for a limit/quantity when it's obvious what it would do
  • use of e for an Exception in a catch clause
// OK
for (int i = 0; i < hosts.size(); i++) { }

// OK
String repeat(String s, int n);

Warning: idioms should only be used in cases where it's obvious what they mean.

May Use Short Names Over Short Distances When Obvious

Short names, even one-letter names, are preferable in certain circumstances. When reviewers see a long name, they tend to think they should pay attention to them, and then if the name turns out to be completely useless, they just wasted time. A short name can convey the idea that the only useful thing to know about the variable is its type. So it is okay to use short variable names (one- or two-letter), when both of the following are true:

  1. The distance between declaration and use isn't great (say within 5 lines, so the declaration is within the reader's field of vision)
  2. There isn't a better name for the variable than its type
  3. The reader doesn't have too many other things to remember at that point in the code (remember, studies show people can remember about 7 things).

Here's an example:

void updateJVMs(HostService s, Filter obsoleteVersions)
  // 'hs' is only used once, and is "obviously" a HostService
  List<Host> hs = s.fetchHostsWithPackage(obsoleteVersions);
  // 'hs' is used only within field of vision of reader
  Workflow w = startUpdateWorkflow(hs);
  try {
  } finally {

You could also write:

void updateJVMs(HostSevice hostService, Filter obsoleteVersions)
  List<Host> hosts = hostService.fetchHostsWithPackage(obsoleteVersions);
  Workflow updateWorkflow = startUpdateWorkflow(hosts);
  try {
  } finally {

But this takes up more space with no real gain; the variables are all used so close to their source that the reader has no trouble keeping track of what they mean. Furthermore, the long name updateWorkflow signals to the reviewer that there's something significant about the name. The reviewer then loses mental energy determining that the name is just boilerplate. Not a big deal in this one case, but remember, code reviewing is all about death by 1,000 cuts.

Remove Thoughtless One-Time Variables

One-time variables (OTVs), also known as garbage variables, are those variables used passively for intermediate results passed between functions. They sometimes serve a valid purpose (see the next cookbook items), but are often left in thoughtlessly, and just clutter up the codebase. In the following code fragment, the coder has just made the reader's life more difficult:

List<Host> results = hostService.fetchMatchingHosts(hostFilter);
return dropletFinder(results);

Instead, coders should make a pass through their code and simplify to:

return dropletFinder(hostService.fetchMatchingHosts(hostFilter));

Use Short OTVs to Break Long Lines

Sometimes you need an OTV in order to break up a really long line:

List<Host> hs = hostService.fetchMatchingHosts(hostFilter);
return DropletFinderFactoryFactory().getFactory().getFinder(region).dropletFinder(hs);

This is ok, although since the distance is so short, you can give the OTV and one- or two-letter name (hs) to save visual clutter.

Use Short OTVs to Break up Complicated Expressions

It can be difficult to read code like this:

return hostUpdater.updateJVM(hostService.fetchMatchingHosts(hostFilter),

So it's ok to write:

List<Host> hs = hostService.fetchMatchingHosts(hostFilter);
Set<JVMVersions> js = JVMServiceFactory.factory(region).getApprovedVersions(),
List<AvailabilityZone> zs = RegionFactory(region).getZones();
return hostUpdater.updateJVM(hs, js, zs);

Again, because the distances are all short and the meanings are all obvious, short names can be used.

Use Longer OTVs to Explain Confusing Code

Sometimes you need OTVs simply to explain what code is doing. For example, sometimes you have to use poorly-named code that someone else (ahem) wrote, so you can't fix the name. But you can use a meaningful OTV to explain what's going on. For example,

List<Column> pivotedColumns = olapCube.transformAlpha();

Note in this case you should not use a short OTV:

List<Column> ps = olapCube.transformAlpha();

That just adds too much visual clutter without helping to explain the code sufficiently.


fixed some of the issues brought up in the comments - thanks for the feedback!


This code example is used for illustrative purposes only and is not meant to be an example of well-designed code, variable names notwithstanding.
There are obvious exceptions such as nuclear power plant control rod algorithms, distributed locking protocols, and so forth.


Lucas Cimon said...

Nice post, thanks.
I find many similarities with advices in Clean Code by Robert C. Martin. It's a very nice read, I recommend it.
There are some slides with key points of his book:

Unknown said...

Excellent recommendations. My only nitpick is that you named a function printFirstNPositives, but then used n in that function to be something other than than the number of positives.

alpinesol said...

I think that in dynamically-typed languages, where the type name isn't included in the variable declaration, it is helpful to include type information in the name.

David Lambl said...

Nice collection of tips. Thank you!

Unknown said...

Actually I read the first code and even found an error (but also used the second one to be sure): in line 5 it should be
"int a6 = a2.get(a3);"
"int a6 = a2.get(i1);"
(a3 in place of i1). So yes this kind of programs is not only difficult to debug, but also to write properly!

Ken Ross said...

In about 1975, the BASIC language only allowed variables to have a single letter and a number (such as a1). DEC basic (digital equipment Corp) provided for a 3rd character signifying the data type. a1% was an integer, a1$ was a string, etc. The company I founded in 1972 developied some pretty sophisticated and commercialy successful software using these naming restrictions. Of course, they were hard to debug and we were all thankful when DEC enabled longer names some years later.

Elliot said...

Bug in your first listing:
int a6 = a2.get(i1);

Should read:
int a6 = a2.get(a3);

none said...

Two toughts here:

* Remove Thoughtless One-Time Variables

In java, i prefer to split them up if they can be null: A null pointer exception stack trace is much nicer iw you know what is null.

*Avoid Over-used Cliches - result
I prefer to use result as a variable if i am mapping/filtering/... Much like i/j/k it is more an idiom

Anonymous said...

I think you fail to follow own advice:

int printFirstNPositive(int maxToPrint, Collection c)

The method name uses "N", but the param for N is named "maxToPrint". Confusing and also violates his/her wasted space rule.


int printFirstNPositive(int n, Collection c)

I think the short variable names "n" and "c" are fine since they are part of the method signature and have unambiguous meaning, and also because the implementation is so short (so no problem remembering that n and c are the inputs.

Unknown said...

Nice for strongly typed languages. I'd suggest revising the article title to reflect that context.

In dynamically typed languages the suggestion to avoid including some kind of type indicator in the name can be disastrous to the developers that follow.

Ally said...

You wrote:
"Most names should be Teutonic, following the spirit of languages like Norwegian, rather than the elliptical vagueness of Romance languages like English."

However, English is a Teutonic (or Germanic) language, like Norwegian, as can be seen at

English has been influenced by a Romance language, French, ( but is still considered to be Germanic.

Unknown said...

Some useful tips here. A few minor objections regarding your "Teutonic" suggestion (although I agree with your basic intent): English is not a Romance language, it is Germanic. Also, "Teutonic" is antiquated and carries certain questionable overtones. A better way to express your intention here would be to point out how Germanic languages such as modern German create compound nouns that precisely describe a given thing: "Zahnarzt" is literally "tooth doctor," to use one of your examples. This is not a trait unique to Germanic languages, however. The thing about English is not that it is "elliptical," but rather that it has been strongly influenced by French, Latin, and other languages. If you do not speak French, then an English word of French origin may seem vague, but it's really just a word you don't understand as well as you might understand others.

William R. Buckley said...

I disagree with the *never use these variable names again* assertion. More fitting is the rule regarding short naming in obvious context; tmp is a favored name, just like i, j, k, ii, nn, t, tt, etc. This behavior derives from days gone by writing Fortran IV code. Hence, the use of such names has long been recognised to be as an index. I hold that no index deserves even a full name; three characters at best. tmp, val and str are such names.

Jiacai Liu said...

Nice naming tips, I will try to remove result, process variables in my code

Unknown said...

Nice tips. Thanks!

Unknown said...

i want to read Code Complete 2 again ,after reading this posts

Eugen said...

Great post! You covered pretty much everything there is to say about naming variables!

Two remarks.

Instead of the variable name 'c' in your rewritten example I would have written 'cs'. The idea is that you pluralize even one-letter names when they refer to a collection of elements. It becomes especially useful if your code mixes both variables that refer to a single element of a collection and variables that refer to the collections themselves (e.g. 'x' and 'xs'). I picked up this convention from the Haskell community and I'm fond of it since then.

As other commenters have pointed out I find the "overused" variable names 'result' and 'tmp' (or sometimes just 't') useful sometimes. The canonical example for a valid use case for 'tmp' is the swap function where a variable 'tmp' is literally introduced to be a *temporary* reference. I tend to use the name 'result' in a function that returns a collection and imperatively builds up the resulting collection by feeding elements into 'result' (e.g. imperatively written 'filter' function). It's especially useful if this function has many variables or operates on several collections since you see at a glance which variable refers to the resulting collection even though you could have named it 'r' if only considering your "distance" argument.

Unknown said...

Hey! Great post,

Just a small fix. You said and I agree that types shouldn't be on the variable name because it is already explained when declaring the variable. But this is exclusive to static typed languages. If you are working with a dynamic typed language, it would make more sense to put the type of the variable in the name, as you don't know what it is until you make a method call on that object.

Also here is a small error:

// BAD
int port; // TCP port number
int tcpPortNumber;

With your explanation it would be better just to name it as tcpPort. You already know it is a number because it is declared as int.


Jacob Gabrielson said...

Thanks for all the comments and bug fixes - I made a few minor updates attempting to address the more mechanical problems people pointed out. Regarding the use of the term Teutonic, I think it might be more accurate to say Agglutinative. I noticed this in a talk by Kevlin Henney (see slide 40 of for example). Because he used it to refer to the common anti-pattern of gluing together low-information-content words (his example was "validateCustomerValue"), I'd be hesitant to use the term here, for fear of causing confusion.

Greg said...

The comment "maxToPrint" doesn't match the method's signature where 'n' is used...

Jacob Gabrielson said...

@Greg: thanks, I clearly need an editor :-)

Andrew Certain said...

I only have one difference of opinion, which is when CamelCasing acronyms and initialisms, only the first letter should be capitalized. It's not too bad if there's only one in the name, but when I see names such as AWSEC2HTTPClient, my head explodes.

Павел said...

There is a typo in code
int doSomethingWithCollectionElements(int numberOfResults, Collection integerCollection)

You renamed "count" to "variableThatCountsUp"

Wild Pottok said...

Thank you for this eloquent essay. The article contains a few typos, perhaps due to successive refactorings:
- java.util.Collection does not have a get(int i) method
- the signature of printFirstNPositive(int n, Collection c) is not consistent with the discussion below, which mentions the parameter maxToPrint
- "even if by the letter of they law" ? Did you mean the law?
- the variable names in method 'updateJVMs' are not consistent with the comments (although I suppose it illustrates your point regarding comments;-)

Jacob Gabrielson said...

Thanks for the comments - I've (hopefully) fixed those issues in the new version on my new blog.

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